Wheat is an important source of protein and energy. Modern wheat is deprived of essential micronutrients which lead to mal nutrition in the world. About 2 billion of world population is affected by mal nutrition. The main micro nutrients which are not present in modern hexaploid are iron and zinc. Both of two micronutrients are essential in human physiology, the deficiency of iron and zinc leads to different diseases like anemia, Anorexia, lethargy and diarrhea respectively. Mal nutrition mainly affects children, pregnant women and old ages peoples. So researchers are now mainly focused on biofortification of wheat for improving nutrition value of wheat. Different approaches were used for this purpose like foliar application of fertilizers, but this method is short term method for increasing iron and zinc in wheat. Breeding is another method but it requires a lot of funds, time and resources. Wild emmer wheat was rich in these micronutrients because the genes responsible for enhancing iron and zinc is GPC 1 (NAM B1) was functional but in Triticum Avestium it became non functional due to domestication or frame shift etc. so scientists used positional cloning to transfer these genes into modern wheat. In this review we identified that this transgenic method is most reliable and cost less method for improving nutrition content of wheat by conducting feed trail to mice with transgenic wheat containing NAM B1 gene. There is immensely enhancement of these micronutrient or iron and zinc.
Keywords: Mal nutrition, GPC (grain protein content), Triticum Avestium,transgenic approach